State-of-the-art displays, such as those in smartphones, tablets, watches, laptops, monitors and televisions are limited by their colourfulness. They can only render up to approximately 52% of colours visible to the human eye (as defined by the CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticity diagram). The remaining colours are absent. This hinders the ability of displays to appear true to life and limits user experience. This is depicted in the chromaticity diagram, where only those colours contained in the “State of the Art” triangle can be rendered by the displays of today.

To address this shortfall, new standards have been introduced by ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020 (commonly known as BT. 2020 or Rec. 2020). These standards require displays of the future to render at least 76% of colours visible to the human eye. This is depicted in the chromaticity diagram, where all colours contained in the “Rec 2020” triangle must be rendered for a display to meet Rec. 2020 standards. PeroLED technology provides a unique solution to enable displays to exceed Rec. 2020 standards.
CIE 1931 (x, y) Chromaticity Diagram with Rec 2020 and State of the Art

Perovskite Light Emitting Materials

One extremely promising technique to expand the colour gamut of displays is to use perovskite light emitting materials. Perovskite materials are defined by their unique crystal structure of ABX3 where A and B are cations of different sizes, and X is an anion that bonds to A and B.
Perovskite materials are extremely promising for light-emitting applications owing to strong electroluminescent properties and unrivalled high colour purity that can be tuned across the visible spectrum. Colour purity arises because light emission from the perovskite crystal structure is generally independent of variation in crystal dimensions. This enables perovskite materials to emit light with narrower emission spectra than quantum dots in QLED displays. Perovskite light emitting materials therefore provide a path to improve on the state-of-the-art and expand the colour gamut of displays.
Perovskite light emitting materials may be Photoluminescent or Electroluminescent and may be adopted in several different display architectures.


Enhancement Films
Photoluminescent perovskite materials may replace or complement conventional quantum dots in the enhancement film of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) to further expand colour gamut. This low-cost approach leverages existing LCD manufacturing infrastructure.
Colour Conversion Layers
Photoluminescent perovskite materials may be patterned directly on top of the individual pixels of an LCD, Micro-LED (µ-LED) or OLED displays. Patterning may be by inkjet printing or photolithography. This architecture is potentially more efficient than using Enhancement Films.


Perovskite Light Emitting Devices
Electroluminescent perovskite materials may be adopted in Perovskite Light Emitting Devices (PeLEDs). The red, green or blue pixels of a display may be individually patterned PeLEDs that emit light directly without the need for colour filters or colour conversion layers. This architecture is potentially more efficient than using Enhancement Films of Colour Conversion Layers. PeroLED has particular focus on electroluminescent perovskite materials and PeLEDs.
The general device structure of a PeLED is similar to that of an OLED or an electroluminescent QLED. An emissive layer is sandwiched between two electrodes with intermediate layers used to optimize charge balance and recombination within the device. For a PeLED the emissive layer comprises perovskite material, whereas for an OLED the emissive layer comprises organic material, and for a QLED the emissive layer comprises other quantum dot material. This synergy in device structure helps to greatly accelerate development of PeLEDs.
The emissive layer of a PeLED may comprise perovskite light emitting material in several different configurations: Two-Dimensional (2D), Three-Dimensional (3D), Quantum Dot (QD) and Multiple Quantum Well (MQW). The most efficient PeLEDs comprise perovskite light emitting material in either QD or MQW configurations.
Perovskite Quantum Dot
Perovskite Multiple Quantum Well (MQW)